LEADERSHIP CHALLENGES: EXAMINING FACTORS THAT KEEP SMALL BUSINESSES AFLOAT DURING DIFFICULT ECONOMIC TURBULANCE

Requirements for this Systematic Literature Review Dissertation
a. 35 pages, not including the references- PLEASE READ and ADD TO CHAPTER 1
b. Each question must have different 22 references. Continue to alphabetize the references.
c. Statistical data must be referenced
d. Reference can be from 2019-2023
e. In the conclusion, you can add many solutions but please be sure to also include excessive use of marketing and research (Please explain this in great detail) and mentorship/ collaboration programs.
f. Please send a plagiarism report. There are NO PARTICIPANTS to interview.
g. Please unite and collaborate the information so that it matches the Chapter 1 information that is already written.
h. >85% of literature used = peer-reviewed
i. At the ending of the introduction write this (This study sought to better understand the reasons. The following research questions directed this study: This study sought to better understand the reasons. The following research questions directed this study: (Rewrite the research questions # 1-3).
j. Note the subheadings listed below
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PLEASE READ THIS ENTIRE SECTION BELOW…This is just information…
Additional information for Chapter 2 –

In this chapter, the student will review primary sources of literature related to the dissertation. The review involves the systematic identification, location, and analysis of relevant documents. The literature review provides a level of credibility for the dissertation. The writer develops a rationale for the study.

From the work of others, the writer will identify areas to examine, mistakes to avoid, and dimensions of the study others have overlooked or treated inadequately. Because the writer will be knowledgeable of the literature, the study will be approached intelligently, knowing what to expect, what problems loom, what design should be developed, and what aspects of the study offer special insights. Becoming knowledgeable of the field is a primary component of achieving the terminal degree. Although the benefits of and steps involved in reviewing the literature differ according to various authors, the steps suggested by Schumacher and McMillan (1993) include these:

1. Define and limit the problem,

2. Place the study in a historical and philosophical perspective,

3. Avoid unintentional and unnecessary redundancy,

4. Select promising methods and measures, and

5. Relate the findings to previous knowledge and suggest further research.
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REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

The subheadings for this chapter are:

Introduction

End introduction paragraph w/ RQs verbatim from Chapter 1

Historical Perspective

Topical Subheadings

Conclusions

Purpose of the Literature Review

The literature review provides a critical summary of previous research in the selected topic area. The writer will take advantage of what has already been learned or discovered that would be applicable to the dissertation. The writer needs to compile, read, and critically analyze the existing literature in the selected area. The writer will prepare a literature review that summarizes the most important ideas and information, relating them to the dissertation.

Conducting the Literature Review

Conducting a literature review will aid in the planning of the dissertation.

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To ensure the integrity and quality of the literature review, students should use primary sources. Primary sources are journal articles, research reports, and such. Avoid citing authors who cite other authors’ studies as if they are the primary source. Always go to the primary source for the information. Be wary of the amount of websites and books used in the literature review. These sources do not hold the same level of credibility that a primary source does.

To begin the search of the literature, the writer should locate terms pertinent to the selected topic area. If only a few references are located, the writer should widen the search by using synonyms for the search terms. Other strategies include brainstorming search terms with classmates, instructors, and the dissertation adviser; consulting with the librarians; and checking the bibliographies or reference lists of the items collected to identify additional sources. For most topics, peer-reviewed research journals, rather than popular magazines, are essential.

Reviewing the literature includes all sources, including books, articles, abstracts, documents, electronic items, dissertations, and other sources from which information and insight might be derived. In EDD 8151, Research-Based Technology, in-depth instruction will be given in how to access, evaluate, and respond to these sources. Among the commonly used sources for reviews of literature are Education Index, Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature, Dissertation Abstracts International, Psychological Abstracts, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), including Resources in Education (RIE) and Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), Review of Educational Research (RER), and computer searches (e.g., ProQuest, ERIC Database, Infotrac, etc.).

When collecting the sources, the writer should note the complete reference. This method is a time saver when the writer compiles the reference list.

When reading the sources, the writer should note various themes that recur, read the literature critically noting strengths and deficits in the various arguments or studies, consider the qualifications of writers’ opinions, be fair and objective, and review sources representing different viewpoints.

Writing the Literature Review

In writing Chapter II, the writer provides the reader with the broader context for the dissertation by conveying what is already known about the problem and how it might be addressed. The literature review should be organized to address the research questions. The writer is not simply reviewing everything that is read, but rather is declaring the ideas that are most significant to the study. A common flaw in literature reviews is simply to string together summaries of all the items that were read. To avoid this flaw, the writer should sort through the information that has been discovered and organize it in a way that is relevant to the dissertation. Using transitional sentences to conclude one paragraph and introduce the next is an effective writing method. Summarize the relevance of each subsection to the total thesis—the dissertation.

The review of the literature should include both empirical and theoretical research.

This chapter should conclude with a paragraph that summarizes the key findings and provides a transition to Chapter III.

When preparing Chapter II, the writer should minimize the use of verbatim quotation of the source material. All ideas and information from other sources whether in direct quotations or paraphrased must be referenced in the text.

Conclude the introduction of the Chapter II with a restatement of the research questions.

Remember: a thorough, comprehensive review of the literature should be a minimum of 35 pages including both theoretical and empirical research. This literature review should present both sides of the argument.Suggested Activities: Preparing for Chapter 2

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A solid, comprehensive review of the literature should be a minimum of 35 pages.

The student selects a dissertation topic that is of interest and will provide professional or personal satisfaction. In order to become steeped in the scholarly knowledge pertaining to the chosen field, the student will complete the literature review prior to completing the introduction.

In this chapter, the student will review primary sources of literature related to the dissertation. The review involves the systematic identification, location, and analysis of relevant documents. The literature review provides a level of credibility for the dissertation. The writer develops a rationale for the study.

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The subheadings for this chapter are:

Introduction

End introduction paragraph w/ RQs verbatim from Chapter 1

Historical Perspective

Topical Subheadings

Conclusions

Purpose of the Literature Review

The literature review provides a critical summary of previous research in the selected topic area. The writer will take advantage of what has already been learned or discovered that would be applicable to the dissertation. The writer needs to compile, read, and critically analyze the existing literature in the selected area. The writer will prepare a literature review that summarizes the most important ideas and information, relating them to the dissertation.

Conducting the Literature Review

Conducting a literature review will aid in the planning of the dissertation.

The writer will:

1. Locate information or opinions that support the existence of a problem or need in the selected topic area,

2. Identify models that have been used in the selected topic area,

3. Discover methods that have been used by others to answer questions or meet objectives similar to those in the dissertation, and

4. Find instruments or tools such as tests, surveys, or logs that may be beneficial to the dissertation.

To ensure the integrity and quality of the literature review, students should use primary sources. Primary sources are journal articles, research reports, and such. Avoid citing authors who cite other authors’ studies as if they are the primary source. Always go to the primary source for the information. Be wary of the amount of websites and books used in the literature review. These sources do not hold the same level of credibility that a primary source does.

To begin the search of the literature, the writer should locate terms pertinent to the selected topic area. If only a few references are located, the writer should widen the search by using synonyms for the search terms. Other strategies include brainstorming search terms with classmates, instructors, and the dissertation adviser; consulting with the librarians; and checking the bibliographies or reference lists of the items collected to identify additional sources. For most topics, peer-reviewed research journals, rather than popular magazines, are essential.

Reviewing the literature includes all sources, including books, articles, abstracts, documents, electronic items, dissertations, and other sources from which information and insight might be derived. In EDD 8151, Research-Based Technology, in-depth instruction will be given in how to access, evaluate, and respond to these sources. Among the commonly used sources for reviews of literature are Education Index, Readers’ Guide to Periodical Literature, Dissertation Abstracts International, Psychological Abstracts, Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), including Resources in Education (RIE) and Current Index to Journals in Education (CIJE), Review of Educational Research (RER), and computer searches (e.g., ProQuest, ERIC Database, Infotrac, etc.).

When collecting the sources, the writer should note the complete reference. This method is a time saver when the writer compiles the reference list.

When reading the sources, the writer should note various themes that recur, read the literature critically noting strengths and deficits in the various arguments or studies, consider the qualifications of writers’ opinions, be fair and objective, and review sources representing different viewpoints.

MORE INFORMATION____
SLR is based on original research articles, and a re considered as secondary sources. They are evidence based. Use an explicit and systematic approach to the relevant study. Summarize the evidence by the use of explicit methodology.
Chapter 1 / Step 1: Framing questions for a review. The problem to be addressed must be specified in the form of clear, unambiguous and structured questions before beginning the review work. Modifications to the protocol should be allowed only if alternative ways of defining the populations, interviews, outcomes or study design become apparent.
Chapter 2 / Step 2: Identify relevant work, use multiple sources (both computerized and printed). The study should flow directly from the review questions and be specified. Reasons for inclusion and exclusion should be recorded.
Chapter 3 / Step 3: Assessing the quality of studies. Use general critical appraisal guides and design-based quality checklist. These are used for exploring heterogeneity and informing decisions regarding suitability of meta-analysis. This should help in assessing the strength of inferences and making recommendations for future research.
Chapter 4 and 5 / Step 4: Summarizing the evidence. Can use statistical methods for exploring differences between the studies and combing their effects (Meta-analysis). Exploration of heterogeneity and its sources should be planned. If an overall meta-analysis cannot be done, subgroup meta-analysis may be feasible.
Chapter 4 / Step 5: Interpret the findings. The issues highlighted in each of the four steps above should be met. This risk of bias should be explored. Can the overall summary be trusted, if not, the effects observed in high-quality studies should be used for generating inferences. ALL recommendations should be graded by references to the strengths and weaknesses of the evidence.

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