To what degree was Vladek’s survival based on luck, and to what degree was his survival based on his considerable resourcefulness?

To what degree was Vladek’s survival based on luck, and to what degree was his survival based on his considerable resourcefulness? In essence, how did Vladek manage to survive the Shoah (i.e., genocide) when approximately eleven million were killed (inclusive of gay men, Roma, Jehovahs Witnesses, Communists, Socialists, people with disabilities, etc.)? Is there a lesson here for the reader? If so, what is it?

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