Write a research paper about the credentials for special needs schooling.

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Review one example of an assessment that can be used with MLL students. You can find examples on the left column of BB page_link to assessment examples, or you will find them embedded in our course materials each week. There are also several examples of very simple classroom assessments in our course text, see p. 87. Another place to find a classroom assessment: Ask the teacher you are observing for your course fieldwork. Report on where you ended up finding your classroom assessment. After you identify your assessment, connect an analysis–your ideas and comments– on the example to the current view of the validity of assessments as explained in Mahoney Chapter 3 & the instructor’s PowerPoint. Typically, you will include a minimum of two in-text citations when you are paraphrasing from your sources.
reply to peers
Assessing levels of language proficiency
The CALP checklist and our reading on validity have a common emphasis on the importance of accurately assessing language proficiency in educational contexts, particularly for English learners. The reading discusses various validity threats related to language proficiency assessment, such as construct irrelevant variance (CIV) and construct underrepresentation. EB educators recognize that linguistic problems can undermine the validity of achievement test scores and are prepared to address this issue. However, we learn that non-educators may not perceive the negative impact of evaluating English-language learners on academic achievement exams. “Non-educators may not see the harm in testing EBs in English on academic achievement tests.” The CALP checklist tackles these validity concerns by providing a complete framework for assessing several elements of language proficiency, such as comprehension, production, and academic language skills. Also, In the reading we see that “The true measure of language proficiency lies not just in what is spoken, but in how it is understood, applied, and integrated into various contexts, echoing the essence of the Unified View of Validity, which underscores the importance of validating how we use test scores rather than merely validating the tests themselves.”. I believe that by including the BICS checklist in language assessment methods, educators can reduce validity risks and ensure that language proficiency exams adhere to the Unified View of Validity, resulting in more suitable and fair testing decisions for English learners.
Mahoney,K. (2017).

The Assessment of Emergent Bilinguals, Supporting English Language Learners.
Using the example of an assessment from the textbook on page 87.
I enjoyed looking over this assessment example. This is a math assessment that was given to a MLL student. This assessment was given to English, it appears his native language is Spanish. The student used both languages to answer the question. I think this helped the validity of the exam because he could answer to the best of his ability. It is clear he is understanding the math and following the questioning. If he had not been allowed to use bith his languages to explain his answers, it is possible he would have left those questions blank and the teacher would conclude he did not comprehend the material. The student did understand the math concepts that were needed for this material, they just needed a larger vocabulary to explain, and that is why he used his native language.
A good and valid test is measured by itself and to itself, it is on a case by case basis. A valid assessment creates more meaningful results for students. The use of tests for EB can vary from giving grades, deciding programs, deciding promotion, EB classification, or the need for Special Education. Therefore, when results of an assessment hold so much value the test scores validity should be at the forefront of educators minds.
As explored in our textbook, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) created an emphasis on tests and rewards to schools and educators based on those results. Since then I am happy to see that education is moving on from test scores being a tool to evaluate teachers and principals. When assessments are used to evaluate, test validity is affected. EB students are directly affected. When teachers are seen as successful only based on the test scores, it’s been noted that teachers shy away from districts with a large population of EB students to improve their teacher rating.
a focus on test validity and reliable results for EB students will help students get the right placement and avoid bias.

Mahoney, K. (2017). chapter 3. In The assessment of emergent bilinguals: Supporting English language learners. essay, Multilingual Matters.
Week four Power Point

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