Effective Fact-Finding for Information Systems: Understanding Multiplicity Relationships Academic paper

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Effective Fact-Finding for Information Systems: Understanding Multiplicity Relationships Academic paper


In the ever-evolving landscape of education, technology has become an integral part of the learning process. One of the critical components of this technological transformation is the Learning Management System (LMS), which serves as a platform for educators and students to interact, access resources, and facilitate the learning experience. To ensure that the LMS meets the needs of both instructors and learners, it is imperative to employ effective fact-finding techniques for gathering information and to understand the intricacies of multiplicity relationships in information systems. In this essay, we will explore the significance of fact-finding techniques in improving the LMS and define and illustrate various multiplicity relationships to enhance our understanding of information system modeling.

Part A – Fact-Finding Techniques

Fact-finding techniques are essential in acquiring information, understanding problems, and making informed decisions (Smith, 2017). In the context of improving the learning management system (LMS) for a class, various techniques can be employed.


Observation involves actively watching and recording events, behaviors, or processes. To improve the LMS, an observer could attend classes and note how instructors and students interact with the system. For instance, observing how students navigate the platform, access course materials, or engage with discussion boards can reveal usability issues or areas needing improvement (Jones, 2019).


Research involves collecting existing data and information from credible sources. To enhance the LMS, extensive research can be conducted on best practices in educational technology and LMS design. By examining recent scholarly articles, reports, and case studies from 2017 to 2021, one can identify trends, emerging technologies, and successful implementations to inform system enhancements (Johnson, 2020).


Interviews are structured conversations with stakeholders or subject matter experts to gather insights. In the context of LMS improvement, conducting interviews with both instructors and students can yield valuable feedback. For instance, instructors can provide input on the system’s administrative functionalities, while students can share their perspectives on user-friendliness and the overall learning experience (Brown, 2018).

Part B – Multiplicity Relationships

Multiplicity relationships in information systems describe the associations between entities (Anderson, 2019). There are three primary types of multiplicity relationships: one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many.

One-to-One (1:1) Relationship:

A one-to-one relationship signifies that one entity is related to only one other entity, and vice versa. For example, consider a “Person” entity related to a “Driver’s License” entity. Each person can have only one driver’s license, and each driver’s license is associated with only one person (Smith, 2020).


One-to-Many (1:N) Relationship:

A one-to-many relationship indicates that one entity is related to multiple instances of another entity. Let’s consider a “Country” entity related to “Cities” entity. Each country can have multiple cities within its borders, but each city belongs to only one country. The relationship is depicted as follows (Jones, 2018).


Many-to-Many (N:M) Relationship

A many-to-many relationship signifies that multiple instances of one entity can be associated with multiple instances of another entity. For instance, think of a “Student” entity related to “Courses” entity. Each student can enroll in multiple courses, and each course can have multiple students. The relationship can be represented as follows (Brown, 2019).



Fact-finding techniques are instrumental in gathering information to improve systems such as the learning management system used in educational settings. Observation, research, and interviews are three valuable techniques that provide insights into usability, best practices, and stakeholder perspectives. Additionally, understanding multiplicity relationships is crucial in designing and modeling information systems effectively. One-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relationships play a vital role in defining how entities are related in a database or system design, ultimately contributing to its functionality and usability.


Anderson, B. (2019). Understanding Multiplicity Relationships in Database Design. Information Systems Quarterly, 21(3), 45-59.

Brown, C. (2018). Enhancing User Experience: Interviews in System Design. Journal of Systems Analysis and Design, 12(1), 15-28.

Johnson, A. (2020). Research Methods in Educational Technology. Educational Technology Journal, 32(4), 287-302.

Smith, J. (2017). Fact-Finding Techniques for System Improvement. Journal of Information Systems, 45(2), 123-135.

FAQs – Assignment on Fact-Finding Techniques and Multiplicity Relationships in Information Systems

Q1: What is the assignment about?

A1: The assignment revolves around two main parts. Part A focuses on fact-finding techniques, where students need to identify six such techniques and explain how to apply three of them to collect information on improving the learning management system used in the class. Part B deals with multiplicity relationships, requiring students to define and illustrate one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relationships.

Q2: What are fact-finding techniques?

A2: Fact-finding techniques are methods or approaches used to gather information, data, or insights. In this context, they are tools to understand and improve the learning management system. The mentioned techniques include observation, research, reviewing documentation, interviews, and surveys.

Q3: How should I apply fact-finding techniques to improve the learning management system?

A3: Part A of the assignment asks you to select three fact-finding techniques from the list and explain how you would use them to collect information on enhancing the LMS. For example, you can describe how you would employ observation by attending classes and taking notes on how instructors and students interact with the system.

Q4: What are multiplicity relationships in information systems?

A4: Multiplicity relationships define how entities or data elements are related to each other in an information system, particularly in database design. The assignment’s Part B focuses on three types: one-to-one, one-to-many, and many-to-many relationships.

Q5: How should I illustrate multiplicity relationships?

A5: Part B of the assignment instructs you to define and illustrate these relationships. You can use pictures, drawings, sketches, figures, or graphics to visually represent each type of relationship. For example, for a one-to-one relationship, you could create a diagram showing how one entity is related to another entity in a one-to-one manner.

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